1. That, worldwide, currently, about 75% of antibiotics are used in food animal husbandry[i] and that 17 countries from the Americas allow the use of antimicrobials as animal growth promoters, the highest number of countries reporting in any World Organisation for Animal Health region (OIE).[ii]
2. That, according to the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) and the European Medicines Agency (EMA), «the stress associated with intensive, indoor, large-scale production may lead to an increased risk of livestock contracting disease.»[iii]
3. That the use of antibiotics in animal production leads to the dissemination, through untreated excreta, of antibiotic residues, multidrug-resistant bacteria and resistance genes in the environment, and that this violates our human right to food, water, health and life.
4. That the United Nations Inter-Agency Coordination Group on AMR (IACG) “notes that civil society groups have a particularly important role to play in the development of National Antimicrobial Resistance Action Plans” and calls for “provision of political, financial and technical support for civil society organizations to enhance their engagement, including for work with governments while keeping their independence.”[iv]
5. That, given there is much work to be done for reducing antibiotic use in the agricultural sector as well as in the healthcare sector, the national action plans on AMR (NAPs) of our countries should be revised to address AMR in the food system more effectively.
1. That, further to the World Health Organization’s recommendations (WHO), our countries adopt the complete restriction of the use of antibiotics of importance for human medicine in growth promotion and preventative purposes in food animals.[i]
2. That, further to the WHO’s recommendations, highest priority critically important antimicrobials for human medicine, such as colistin —a last-resort antibiotic for treating drug-resistant infections— should not be used to treat food-producing animals without a clinically diagnosed infectious disease.[ii]
3. That the labeling of feed used in animal husbandry whether it contains antibiotics or is antibiotic-free be approved, as well as the labeling of food of animal origin produced with and without the routine use of antibiotics, in order to facilitate consumer choice, until the ban on such uses go into effect.
4. That, as suggested by the Bangkok Declaration,[iii] our countries establish for public procurement the requirement that food be produced without the routine use of antibiotics. Hospitals should take the lead, in order to be consistent with their mission.
5. That countries and intergovernmental agencies build transparent data systems about antibiotics sold/purchased and used by antibiotic and feed manufacturers, retailers and producers of food animals.
6. That countries build surveillance monitoring systems of antimicrobial residues, antibiotic-resistance genes (ARGs) and drug-resistant pathogens in food.
7. As part of a focus on bacterial resistance, that encourage low-impact waste management methods, particularly where wastewater or manure is being used as biofertilizer. This should include the development of new and practical methods for treatment of animal litter and manure prior to land application, as well as preventing the use of poultry litter in aquaculture.[iv]–[v]
8. That our countries establish as a requirement the submission of environmental management plans that consider the impacts of antibiotic contamination, multidrug-resistant bacteria and ARGs.
9. That countries develop transition strategies towards healthy, sustainable and self-governing food production systems, that ensure animal welfare, in accordance with the principles established by the FARMS Initiative.[vi] This should include the creation of a public fund to finance applied research and the needed technical-hygiene improvements in the animal farms, as well as to sustain the economies of producers during the process.
10. That, given the need to reduce the use of antimicrobials also in some crop production,[vii] countries should promote agroecological production, which combines the production of vegetables and animal husbandry, taking care of biodiversity and avoiding the use of chemical inputs.
11. Develop market regulation and incentive mechanisms for food producers and food buyers to promote supply chains for responsibly raised livestock and fish and drive the shift to healthy diets for humans and sustainable for the planet.[viii]
12. To enable civil society to do its part, develop a fund to finance civil society initiatives to address AMR, independently administered, financed with public sector resources, and capable of fostering national and regional, as well as cross-sectoral, action to address antimicrobial resistance.
|174||Nicolás Luciano Campoverde Arévalo||Ecuador|
|173||Francisco Alvarellos Dies||Argentina||Nodo Patricios|
|169||Angel Bonilla Cortez||Ecuador||Colegio Médico Sucumbios|
|168||Soraya Barragán Soto||Ecuador||Wachachik Parteria Ecuador|
|167||Nydia Amador||Costa Rica|
|166||Hugo Noboa Cruz||Ecuador||Fundación Salud Ambiente y Desarrollo|
|165||Leda Giannuzzi||Argentina||Universidad Nacional de La Plata, CONICET|
|164||Sonia Uema||Argentina||Centro de Información de Medicamentos (CIME), Facultad de Ciencias Químicas, Universidad Nacional de Córdoba|
|163||Jannet Juana Sánchez Callisaya||Bolivia|
|160||Anabel Ley Hernández||Mexico|
|159||Cátedra Libre de Soberanía Alimentaria 9 de Julio (CaLiSA 9 de Julio)||Argentina|
|156||Mario Alberto Ramírez Camacho||Mexico||Centro de Información de Medicamentos y Farmacia Clínica - UADY|
|155||Miguel Gualoto||Ecuador||ALMAZ UNIVERSE|
|154||María Bernarda Ruilova Cueva||Ecuador||Universidad Técnica de Babahoyo|
|152||Silvana Figar||Argentina||Consejo de Epidemiología de la Sociedad Argentina de Medicina|
|150||Olquer Hugo Calle Guzmán||Bolivia||SENASAG|
|149||Luis Mendez||Guatemala||Programa de Medicina Comunitaria, Universidad Rafael Landívar|
|148||Blanca Calle Heras||Ecuador|
|147||Antonio Flores Mejicano||Guatemala|
|146||Fernando Arroyo Avilés||Ecuador||Terranimal|
|145||Liliam Diaz Quiroga||Argentina|
|144||Marisol Peñaloza||Ecuador||Cultivando el Futuro|
|142||Emanuel García||Costa Rica||Costarricense|
|140||Sofia Tapia Mena||Ecuador|
|138||Ålvaro José Restrepo Gaviria||Colombia||Extinction Rebellion Medellín|
|137||Guillermo Lombeyda davila||Ecuador|
|135||Carmen Saavedra Condori||Bolivia||Red de Salud Warnes|
|134||Juana Maria Freire||Ecuador|
|133||Protección Animal Ecuador||Ecuador||PAE|
|132||Silvana Figar||Argentina||Consejo de Epidemiología Sociedad Argentina de Medicina|
|131||Isabel Amemiya||Peru||Escuela Nacional de Salud Publica - MINSA|
|130||Hans Labra Bassa||Chile||Antu kai Mawen|
|129||MARIA TERESA CUERVO DELGADO||Colombia||VETERINARIA PRODUCCION PRINARIA|
|128||Nilsa cielo Mora palomino||Mexico|
|127||Eva Lucia Crespo Pesantes||Ecuador|
|126||Gimena Tejada Rodriguez||Peru|
|125||Juan Antonio Huaripata Colorado||Peru|
|<< < > >>|
[i] World Animal Protection. Fueling the pandemic crisis. 2021. Available from: https://www.worldanimalprotection.ca/our-work/animals-farming/factory-farming-and-the-rise-of-superbugs#main-content
[ii] World Organization for Animal Health (OIE). OIE Annual Report on Antimicrobial Agents Intended for Use in Animals. Better Understanding of the Global Situation. Fourth report. Paris; 2020. Available from: https://www.oie.int/app/uploads/2021/03/a-fourth-annual-report-amr.pdf
[iii] European Medicines Agency and European Food Safety Authority. EMA and EFSA joint scientific opinion on measures to reduce the need to use antimicrobial agents in animal husbandry in the European Union, and the resulting impacts on food safety. EFSA J. 2017; 119: 1-245. DOI: https://doi.org/10.2903/j.efsa.2017.4666
[iv] IACG. No Time to Wait: Securing the Future from Drug-resistant Infections. 2019. Available from: https://www.who.int/docs/default-source/documents/no-time-to-wait-securing-the-future-from-drug-resistant-infections-en.pdf
[v] World Health Organization. WHO guidelines on use of medically important antimicrobials in food-producing animals. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2017. License: CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 IGO. Available from: https://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/handle/10665/258970/9789241550130-eng.pdf
[vii] Bangkok Declaration on AMR, food systems and farm. 2019. Available from: https://static1.squarespace.com/static/5c3784843c3a534eadd60de4/t/5d6e88f3f17ff60001eb36b3/1567525108668/Bangkok-Declaration.pdf
[viii] Ezuworie, et al. Proliferation of antibiotic-resistant microorganisms and associated genes during composting: An overview of the potential impacts on public health, management and future. Science of the Total Environment 2021;784: 147191
[ix] Ezzariai A, Hafidi M, Khadra A, et al. Human and veterinary antibiotics during composting of sludge or manure: Global perspectives on persistence, degradation, and resistance genes. Journal of Hazardous Materials 2018; 359: 465-481. Available at: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0304389418306459?via%3Dihub
[x] FARMS Initiative. Principles underlying responsible minimum standards. 2019: Available from: https://farms-initiative.com/wp-content/uploads/2019/07/PRINCIPLES-OF-RMS-COPYRIGHT-FARMS-INITIATIVE.pdf
[xi] Taylor, P., Reeder, R. Antibiotic use on crops in low and middle-income countries based on recommendations made by agricultural advisors.CABI Agric Biosci 1, 1 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1186/s43170-020-00001-y
[xii] Intensive livestock farming is also a source of greenhouse gases. Therefore, the Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs), stipulated in the Paris Agreement, should include specific emission reduction targets, by reducing food waste, reducing consumption (in some social contexts) and transforming animal production systems.